An Analytical Study of the Islamic Principles of Altruism
as An Educational Objective


Ali Reza. Razeqi / PhD student in the philosophy of education, Shahid Chamran University in Ahvaz


Parvaneh Valavi / assistant professor of Shahid Chamran University in Ahvaz, the department of education

Seyyed Mansour Mar'ashi / associate professor of Shahid Chamran University in Ahvaz, the department of education

Masoud Safai Moghaddam / professor of Shahid Chamran University in Ahvaz, the department of education

Received: 2015/12/08 - Accepted: 2016/05/19


Discussing the educational objectives is among the main missions of the philosophy of education. Given the tight link between "education" and "Faith" and the importance and role of religion in human life, religion and religious teachings are considered as one of the main sources of educational objectives in religious communities. Therefore, in religious communities, it is essential that the educational objectives be discussed in terms of religious principles. Using analytical- inductive method, the present study seeks to investigate altruism as a goal in Islamic education. To this end, through explaining the concept of “altruism” and the relationship between altruism and education, spirituality and religiosity, the ontological, anthropological, epistemological and axiological assumptions that form the basis of Islamic altruism are made clear. Therefore, the mentioned principles were analyzed by referring to a number of the Quranic verses and Sunna of the prophet and the infallible Imams (in the form of their narrations) and the ideas of some Islamic scholars. Finally, it was shown that these principles support altruism as one of the goal of Islamic education.

Key words:  altruism, showing love, educational goal, Islamic education.

An Inquiry into the Objectives of Self-Cultivation
in Sadra`s Philosophical Psychology


Saeed Beheshti/ Islamic educational philosophy professor, Allame Tabatabaei University

Seyyed Ahmad Rahnemaei/ Associate professor, IKI

Mahdi Rezaei/ PhD of Islamic educational philosophy                                      D.M.Rezaei@gmail.com

Received: 2016/01/13 - Accepted: 2016/06/12


Recognizing human soul and its nature in psychology in genral and in philosophical psychology in particular can be an appropriate source to indicate the objectives of education. Furthermore one can come to a thorough understanding of the nature of soul and define the objectives of soul cultivation by resting on Sadra`s philosophical psychology. The current study aims at analyzing the objectives of soul-cultivation on the basis of ultimate and intermediate perfection of Mulla Sadra`s theoretical reason and functional reason. The author uses a descriptive- analytic method to explain the philosophical propositions and realize educational implications. The findings show that considering soul`s ultimate perfection, the ultimate aim of soul cultivation is nearness to God. However based on the intermediate perfection of soul, the intermediate aims of soul cultivation are the perfection of theoretical reason and the perfection of functional reason. Each of these two intermediate aims is realized within its own context, which is,in the theoretical reason, reaching the habitual reason, actual reason and acquired reason and in the practical reason, reaching the effulgence reason, disembarkation, divesting and annihilation.

Key words: education, soul, philosophical psychology, the aim of education, Sadra. 

A Pattern for Predicting Academic Fraud Based on Religious Orientation,
Orientation of Achievement Goals and Control Source among Students


Mahdi Barzegar Bofrooei/ MA student of Educational psychology          mahdibarzegar69@gmail.com

Kazem Barzegar Bofrooei/ Assistant professor of Educational psychology

Received: 2015/12/24 - Accepted: 2016/06/05


The current study tries to present a pattern to predict academic fraud based on religious orientation, goal orientation and control source. To do so, 400 Yazd university students were randomly chosen on the basis of cluster sampling. To collect the data, the scales of religious orientation, goal orientation, control source and academic fraud checklist were used which were analyzed by using the path analysis. The results of this analysis show that internal religious orientation affects academic fraud negatively and external religious orientation affects academic fraud positively through control source. Moreover control-oriented aim affects academic fraud negatively and function-oriented aim affects academic fraud positively through control source. On the whole, findings affirm the role of religious orientation, achievement goals and control source on academic fraud.

Key words: academic fraud, religious orientation, achievement goal orientation, control source.

Critical Thinking Skills in the Elementary Books on Social Studies


Hossein Karimian/ Philosophy group, Azad Islamic university Arak Iran

 Faeze Nateghi/ Philosophy group, Azad Islamic university Arak Iran                  nateghi@iau-arak.ac.ir

Mohammad Seifi/ Philosophy group, Azad Islamic university Arak Iran

Received: 2016/02/07 - Accepted: 2016/06/15


Expanding the skill of critical thinking is one of the determining factors of an effective education. Texts books are the important instruments of this process in centralized educational systems which contribute to developing critical thinking by increasing the coefficient thinking or supporting research studies. The purpose of this study is evaluating the attention which the elementary school books on social studies devote to critical thinking. The statistical population is the elementary school text books on social studies taught in the third grade to the sixth grade. A checklist based on Lipmann critical thinking components was used for collecting the data. The results are as follows: 1. Critical thinking skills vary in the different grades of elementary school in as far as analysis, combination, evaluation and explanation are concerned. 2. Critical thinking skills in all the stages of analysis, combination, evaluation and explanation are lower than expected in all the text books of the grade three to grade six. 3. The relative status of the critical thinking skills in the stage of explanation in the text books on social studies is better than it is in the other stages. 4. On the whole, the elementary text books on social studies cannot contribute to the development of the critical thinking skills among students.

Key words: content analysis, critical thinking skills, social studies, elementary school.

The Effect of Androgenic Educational System
on Women’s Education


Fatemeh Najjari / MA in women studies (subdiscipline; women's right in Islam), Isfahan University


Ali Taghavi / assistant professor, Isfahan University

Received: 2016/05/17 - Accepted: 2016/09/19


In most countries, for many years, women have been able to participate and compete with men in the scientific areas. This has led to women’s progress in human areas that are common for the two sexes, but in gender areas, it has had   completely opposite effects; since the objectives, content and teaching methods are common for the two sexes, women who are educated in the modern androgenic educational systems usually lack the skills related to their gender. On the other hand, despite the fact that in androgenic educational systems women are taught manly skills, in adulthood, customs and laws expect women to play their gender roles, and women not trained to play these roles –such as being a wife or mother- suffer from a variety of problems including depression, irritability, and identity disorder. Now the main question is what are the foundations of the androgenic educational system? What have been the strategies for creation, consolidation and promotion of the androgenic education system? What have been the results of the androgenic educational system? In order to have an in-depth and thorough understanding of the different theories proposed in this area, a number of sources published by theoreticians in this field have been collected and analyzed.

Key words: Women’s scientific growth, educational system, androgenic, realm of human, realm of gender.

The Personality Grounds of Women’s Ostentation
from the Perspective of the Quran and Hadith


Seyyed Reza Mousavi / assistant professor, Islamic Azad University of Baft       dr.r.mosavi@chmail.ir

Received: 2015/11/10 - Accepted: 2016/05/03


The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the "factors and bases of women’s avoidance of Hijab with an emphasis on personality factors". Personality means those features of an individual or individuals that include fixed intellectual, emotional and behavioral patterns. "Women’s ostentation " means their showing their ornaments and make –up to the others, showiness ,  self-beautifying, showing their beauties to the others and revealing their ornaments and make up to the others, that often happen in the society by showing parts of their bodies or wearing unconventional and provocative clothes. Factors such as "identity crisis, lack of spirituality and love, ignorance of the consequences of showiness, lack of adherence to the Islamic values, low self-esteem, feelings of inferiority, emotional poverty, fear and despair, inattention to women's natural desire to show off, and lack of modesty " play a central role in women’s, especially girl’s lack of hijab and their wearing unconventional clothes. The research method in this "qualitative" paper is "description and content analysis" and the instrument for data collection is reference to the main sources (the Holy Quran, hadiths and the psychological findings).

Key words: personality factors, ostentation, avoiding hijab, women, girls.