Pathology of Pedagogical Activities and Educational Affairs from the View of Pedagogical Pedagogues Working in Different Academic Levels in Shiraz; Construction and Analysis of a Pathology Questionnaire

Mohammad Mazidi* , Mahmonir Iranpoor**, Fariba Khoshbakht***


The aim of pedagogical activities in schools is to educate students and it is commonly thought that these activities will lead to religious and moral education. The present paper tries to study the pathology of these activities, which can clear the way for the planners and those in charge of education. To this end, 273 pedagogical pedagogues who were selected through random cluster sampling form different academic levels in Shiraz to conduct this descriptive research. A questionnaire with 56 items was used in this research. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire indicate that it was acceptable. "Repeated measurement" tests, "T-test" for dependent and independent groups, and "one-way ANOVA" were used to answer the questions of the research. The research findings show that the existing harms were ascribed to structure, way of implementation, and pedagogues' spiritual and material motives. There is a significant relationship between the academic levels of the subjects and their views on the structure, the way programs were implemented and spiritual motive. The relationship of gender and occupational rank with the material motive, manpower, spiritual motive, and structural-executive dimensions is not significant. There is no significant relationship between age variable and the aforementioned aspects, and married individuals have a more negative attitude towards material motive.

Key words: pathology, pedagogical activities, pedagogical pedagogues, educational affairs

The Factors Influencing the Inclination of Female High School Students in Sadooq City (Yazd Province) towards Performing Religious Obligatory Duties

Ahmad Zandwaniyan Na'ini*, Mahboobeh Dehqani Ashkezari**, Raziyed Tayyebi***


The present paper studies the factors influencing the inclination of female high school students in Sadooq towards performing religious obligatory duties city in the academic year of 1388-1389 (2009-2010). Concerning its aim, the study is a research-applied research and concerning the method of data gathering it is a descriptive-survey. The statistics population includes 467 female high school students in Sadooq city 200 of whom were selected as sample through appropriate stratified sampling. A researcher-made questionnaire with 100 items was used in this research. "T-test" for one sample and "multiple- regression" were used to analyze the hypotheses. The research findings show that four factors of family, namely school, friends and acquaintances, and media have a significant role in the students' inclination towards performing religious obligatory duties. The results of the analysis of "multiple-regression" show that two independent factors of media and family can predict and explain %31.6 of the variance of religious behavior.

Key words: religious obligatory duties, family, school, friends and acquaintances, media, high school level.

A Review of University Students' Views on the Obstacles for Effectiveness of Lessons on Islamic Sciences in Kashan Azad Islamic University

Mohammad Amini*, Hamid Rahimi**, Zohreh Samadiyan***


The aim of present study which was conducted in Kashan Azad Islamic University is mainly to study university students' views on obstacles for the effectiveness of lessons on Islamic sciences. The statistics population universe of this research was all students of this university in which stratified random sampling appropriate to sample size was used.  96 students were chosen as the sample of this research. A researcher-made questionnaire with 61 items was used to gather data, and its validity coefficient was, according "Cronbach's Alpha"%83. The parameters of inferential statistics (T-test, ANOVA…) were used to analyze the data. The research findings show that the general condition of teaching Islamic sciences in university is considerably desirable but, there are a number of external and internal factors which prevent the desired effectiveness it would have on students. The students believe that the component of evaluation which represents an internal factor and the social factors and environmental conditions as the external factors are the main obstacles for the effectiveness of lessons on Islamic sciences.

Key words: Islamic sciences lessons, university, internal factors, external factors, university students.

An Educational Attitude to the Position of Wisdom and Knowledge in Contemporary World

Habib Karkon Beyraq*


In the past, philosophy or wisdom which included all branches of science was considered a kind of holy knowledge related to metaphysics. With the independence and expansion of new empirical sciences, however, its holy character faded away and it is no longer viewed holy today. Nowadays, the terms science and knowledge suggest a set of principles and rules by which one can have control over the nature and use it to further one's worldly interests. According to this attitude, there is no allegorical look to nature and it is no use to think what is beyond that. Such an attitude has lamentable outcomes in education. Using a descriptive –analytical method, the present paper studies these questions and considers that the duty of our educational system in the mentioned situation is to make its learners familiar with this hidden attitude, its outcomes and ways of confronting it.

Key words: wisdom, science and knowledge, holiness, education.

A Study of Two Memory-based and Thought-based Approaches to Methods OFTeachinG with Emphasis on Imam Ali's Views

Mohammad Jawad Liyaqatdar*, Fakhteh Mahini**


Imam Ali (peace be upon him) divides the science into two kinds of "heard" (Masmu') science that is heard from outside and "desirable" (Matbu') science which is the outcome of intellect. Accordingly, thought-orientation and memory-orientation are considered two main approaches dominating the methods of teaching. Although today thought-based methods are emphasized, memory- orientation is considered as one of the extensively used approaches. Using a descriptive-analytical method and emphasizing on Imam Ali' views, the present paper investigates the important role of knowledge and intellect in education by defining them and underling the relationship between them to make explicit in order  the status they have and the differences between them. Then it defines these two dominating approaches and the methods they adopt. Although the investigation indicates the superiority of using rational education in teaching it proves that the method based on repetition and memory-orientation should not be completely rejected.

Key words: knowledge, intellect, memory-orientation, thought-orientation

The Analysis and Criticism of Post- modernism's Look at Educating the Values

Mohammad Asef Muhseni (Hekmat)*


"Post-modernism" which was emerged in the secular context of West is characterized by emphasis on relativism and pluralism, negation of any certain belief and absolute value, contradiction with essentialism, belief in man's socially made identity, rejection of basing values on genetic realities, and rejection of necessary effects of acts on man's destiny. In terms of educational aims, it emphasizes on institutionalization of pluralism and strengthening the spirit of self-organization in learners; and in terms of educational principles, it emphasizes on avoiding dogmatism, struggle against systematization, and insistence on personal freedoms. In educational methods, it emphasizes on the learner-oriented discourse, serious attention to marginal groups, and negation of modeling.

In spite of its advantages including the struggle against "globalization" and "scientism", and emphasis on "dynamism", this school has many weaknesses. The grave disadvantages are: intellectual dissociation, clear contradiction in thought, and inattention to realities, factual knowledge and fixes and natural values.

Key words: post-modernism, education, values, meta-narrations, relativism, pluralism.

The change of Concept of Response to Prayer in Children and Adolescents

Sayyed Mohammad Reza Moosawinasab*, Ali 'Askari**, 'Abbas Ali Shameli***


The present paper aimed at elaborating on the stages and content of change in the concept of response to prayer in children and adolescents. This research was conducted with emphasis on Islamic sources and texts and based on a cross-sectional design. The sample includes 157 students (82 female and 75 male) from 6 to 17 years olds from Qom city. It should be said that these students were selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling. The data were gathered by a clinical method and a semi-structured individual interview whose questions were framed according to experimental and theoretical foundations of religious concepts and scored by seminary and psychology experts (five experts). The content analysis of interviews and conducting ANOVA showed that understanding the response to prayer includes five stages of ambiguous answers, characteristics of prayer, content features of prayer, value and religious concepts, and rational-religious analyses. Its developmental stages were in four age groups of 6-7, 8-11, 12-14, 15-17 and the rate of understanding the response to prayer increased as age increased. The research findings are discussed with regard to theoretical and experimental foundations of understanding religious concepts and in comparison with other developmental classifications.

Key words: prayer, response to prayer, change of religious concepts, childhood, adolescence.

* Associate professor of philosophy of education, Shiraz University                   mmazidi52@gmail.com

** MA student of history and philosophy of education, Shiraz University iranpoormahmonir@yahoo.com

*** Assistant professor of educational psychology, Shiraz university        Farimah2002us@yahoo.com

Received: 2012-8-14 - Accepted: 2012-12-3

*  Faculty member of Yazd University                                                                 azand2000@yahoo.com

**  MA student of educational psychology                                                            attar_681@yahoo.com

***  MA of educational psychology                                                                   razieh2026@yahoo.com

Received: 2012-11-11 - Accepted: 2012-3-5

* Assistant professor of Kashan University                                                         amini2740@yahoo.com

** Assistant professor of Kashan University                                                dr.hamid.rahimi@gmail.com

*** MA of curriculum planning, Kashan University                                       samadiyan89@yahoo.com

Received: 2013-1-24- Accepted: 2013-5-15

* PhD student of philosophy of education, Tarbiat Mudarres (instructor training) University                  

Received: 2012-11-19 - Accepted: 2012-3-5                                                   habib.karkon@yahoo.com

* Associate professor of Isfahan University                                             mjavad_liaghatdar@yahoo.com

** Faculty member of Bushehr  Azad Islamic university                             fakhteh_mahini@yahoo.com

Received: 2012-7-18 - Accepted: 2013-1-5

* PhD student of philosophy of Islamic education, IKI                                            asif1354@gmail.com

Received: 2012-8-29 - Accepted: 2013-1-19

*. Assistant professor of IKI                                                                               smrmn1346@gmail.com

**. Assistant professor of Khwarizmi University                                                   aasghare@yahoo.com

***. Assistant professor of Al-Mustafa International University

Received: 2012-12-5 - Accepted: 2013-4-8