A Comparative Study on the Meaning and Scope of "Independence"
as the Goal of Religious Education


Sa’eed Beheshti / Professor and the head of the department of philosophy of Islamic education, Allameh Tabatabai University

Mohammad Javad Zare’an / associate professor at Al-Mustafa University              mjzarean@gmail.com

Hadi Razzaghi / Assistant professor, IKI

Received: 2016/06/29 - Accepted: 2016/11/12


In general, independence refers to "not being dependent on the others" and "self-reliance", but its meaning and scope has been a matter of controversy among the experts in the field of education. Therefore, it is obviously necessary to understand the meaning and scope of the trainee’s independence as an unavoidable feature for goal- setting and taking practical measures in education. Since there are considerable differences between the Western viewpoints about the philosophy of education and those derived from the Islamic sources, in order to define the educational goals, a defensible position should be adopted. Thus, this study deals with investigating and evaluating the two mentioned perspectives about the meaning and scope of "desired independence" as the goal of religious education. According to the criteria of "attention to the necessary dimensions” and "feasibility", this comparative research describes and evaluates the mentioned views using "content analysis and logical evaluation". The results show that the overestimation of man’s intellectual ability and free will has led some western educational philosophers to assume too much independence for man, Whereas the Islamic point of view pays a special attention to the relationship between trainer and trainee, especially in religious education, takes into account the ontological limits of free will and the inadequacy of mere use of reason and proposes a reliable bulwark and a specific program for overcoming the limitations.

Key words: trainee’s independence, educational goals, religious education, reason and free will.

The Role of Sense and Experience in Epistemology
and its Educational Implications from the Perspective of Avicenna


Hossein Kar’amad/ faculty member at the department of educational sciences, the humanities institute of higher education     hkaramadbi@gmail.com

Received: 2016/05/15 - Accepted: 2016/09/27


Using an "analytical-inferential" method, the present paper seeks to study the perspective of Avicenna on the educational implications of sense and experience as important ways of understanding the realities of the universe. Avicenna regards sense and experience as very important, so much so that some even call him a sensationalist and empiricist. He believes that most of human knowledge is based on sense, and sensory knowledge and experience is the basis for the growth and development of man’s intellectual abilities, but “intellect", the ability that differentiates humans from animals and gives credit to human knowledge, has more importance. The results indicate that "logical validity" and "matching the level of students understanding” are considered as the most important criteria for educational content. Paying attention to the role of sense and experience, active role of learners and development of their thinking skills is also among the issues that should be highlighted in teaching and learning.

Key words: sense, experience, Avicenna, educational implications.

Generalized and Simple Free Will in Moral Transformation


Seyyed Ahmad Faqihi/Faculty member of Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research

@ Mohammad Reza Kiyumarsi Oskoee / PhD student of Islamic teachings, ethics sub discipline


Received: 2016/10/17 - Accepted: 2017/02/19


The factors of and barriers to moral transformation are considered as important issues in ethics and education. In the meantime, less noted is the impact of the element of "free will ". Man’s optional act can be analyzed in the form of "good deeds" in the Qur'an. Regardless of the primary factors of generating motivation for a good deed, such as education and training, what affects the continuity of a moral act and its generalizability to other moral traits is that it should be done by free choice. The results of this study indicate that on the one hand, optional performance of good deeds leads to strengthening and sustaining the act and, on the other hand, at least in the case of some moral traits, the formed habits generalize to other traits; that is, when the person repeats and continues a special moral trait, he will attract other moral traits as well. Generalizability of free will includes negative changes in immoral traits as well. For example, the good trait of "invocation of God" and the bad trait of "sensual passion" have been investigated as examples of both groups. This paper studies and analyzes the previous studies, the Quran and the interpretations In this regard.

Key words: disposition, moral transformation, good deeds, simple free will, generalized free will.

An Analysis of Optimism and its Pathology from the Perspective
of Reason and Religion


Mohammad Hasan Ya’ghubian / associate professor of Islamic philosophy and theology, University of Quran & Itrat                                                                                                          mohammadyaghoobian@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/05/27 - Accepted: 2016/08/07


subsequent to the issues discussed in cognitive psychology, "optimism and thought engineering” are among the new topics prevalent in the world. Linking this issue with human life and happiness requires more reflection over its epistemic foundations. Based on the three psychological, philosophical and religious approaches, this study seeks to analyze the nature and requirements of optimism. The epistemic sections of the discussion include attention to the importance of the cognitive aspect of man in rational and emotional knowledge, the good quality of mental well-being, and finally the link between optimism and man’s happiness. Research findings show that taking into account the epistemic and affective aspects of man, the general philosophical paradigm, the religious worldview and the individual and detailed style of analysis in the field of psychology can provide us with the right thought engineering path, so that better opportunities are opened up for discussing true optimism and making it clear that optimism is possible just through epistemic overlapping of psychology, philosophy and religion.

Key words: optimism, religious optimism, thought engineering, psychology, religion, philosophy.

The Impact of "Responsible Parenting" on Enjoining the Good
and Forbidding the Evil with Emphasis on Love and Care


Ferdows Miriyan / PhD student of Quran and Hadith Sciences, University of Isfahan

A’zam Parcham / associate professor of theology, University of Isfahan           Azamparcham@gmail.com

Received: 2016/10/15 - Accepted: 2017/02/15


Internalization of religious values, which occurs in early childhood within the family, is one of the fundamental ways of propagation of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. The present paper seeks to examine the impact of parenting style on children's upbringing and its role in enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. In this regard, the parenting styles proposed by psychologists and Islam are explained and compared, and the impact of the most basic components of parenting, namely "love" and "care", are investigated. In the approach advocated in this study, the proper parenting styles in different stages of growth are suggested, although love is emphasized in all the stages. "Love" leads to children’s conformity and assimilation and the "responsible and loving" style facilitates the internalization of Islamic values. Typically, children who have faithful and committed parents and are trained in this way will automatically enjoin the good and forbid the evil in any social group they enter.

Key words: enjoining the good, forbidding the evil, responsible parenting, love, family, education.

An Analysis and Critique of the Educational-Philosophical Viewpoints
of Noddings from the Perspective of Islamic Education


Hamid Ahmadi Hedayat / PhD student of philosophy of education, Shahed University, Tehran


Najmeh Ahmadabadi Arani / PhD student of philosophy of education, Payam Noor University of Tehran                                                                                                                        najmeh.ahmadabadi@gmail.com

Mohammad Hassan Mirza Mohammadi / Associate Professor of educational sciences department, Shahed University, Tehran     


Received: 2016/05/07 - Accepted: 2016/09/13


Using an analytical and documentary method, the present study seeks to analyze and criticize the educational viewpoints of Noddings from the perspective of Islamic education. The results show that the most important philosophical foundations of Noddings include emotionalism, existentialism, phenomenology and feminism. Educational objectives include a combination of educational experiences and values such as love of learning, kindness, self-respect and training democratic citizens. To Noddings, fundamentalism is not accepted in compassion and the educational methods that advocate modeling, dialogue, and action can be verified. Despite the good views that exist in the philosophical and educational ideas of Nel Noddings, based on Islamic education, her educational ideas have some weaknesses including disregard for the external sources of sanctity in educational objectives, feminism in education, regarding affection as the basic criterion for education, neglecting the other effective tools in education, relativism, neglecting the role of standards and principles in education, neglecting the internal factors in education, following pragmatism as the basis for her ideas , neglecting the substantial role of teacher in the teaching-learning process and the role of punishment in education.

Key words: Nel Noddings, philosophical foundations, education, Islam, criticism.