Punishment in the View of Islam and Psychology

Shahnam Abulgasemi*

Traditionally, there have been some controversies among Muslim scholars and various schools of psychology and of education, over ‘punishment’ and the extent to which it is effective. Psychologists usually do not approve corporeal or physical punishment and consider it to have some negative effects such as fear, incapability of learning good behavior, developing in others the character of doing harms to others, speaking aggressively to the one who punishes, the substitution of one negative response for another negative response which can serve as a behavioral model for others.

Children’s punishment should fit the crime. If the child is not aware of the punishment for his ill behavior or if he is awakened of his or her folly before he or she is punished, no one is allowed to punish him/her. Children should not be punished if the punisher tries to punish in order to curb his or her own anger. Rather, it would be more appropriate to make some such alternatives as ‘satiation’, ‘time out’, ‘reinforcement of incompatible behavior’ and ‘ignoring children’s ill-behavior’ and so on.

Key Words: punishment, incompatible behavior, satiation, aversive stimulus, education and discipline

Globalization; Identity Crisis

and Undermining Religious Education

Muhammad Reza Soleimani Bashli*


Globalization is a concept for a process through which the world becomes integrated, the cosmic knowledge increases, the social institutions become interrelated and the knowledge of the world transforms into a whole integrity. This phenomenon is referred to and interpreted as the cause of a split between space , time and place, as the three elements which constitute identity. Though globalization carries with it new opportunities and remarkable potential capacities, it is also associated with serious threats among which one can refer to the so-called ‘emergence of identity crisis in society’. This newly born phenomenon exerts its influence by undermining the logical and sensible relationship between the elements constituting identity and prevent the formation of a fixed and constant identity for individuals in different societies in conformity to the national, ethnic and religious values or native culture.

By undermining the relationship between religious understanding, religious practice and religious beliefs as the preliminary to the emergence of religious identity, globalization leads first to the appearance of a dubious identity (not traditional, not modern) and then to a compound or mixed and finally to a non-religious identity. With the emergence of non-religious identity, the role of religious teachings in training people in society as a value criterion is weakened, minimized and becomes ineffective. The present article, which is, in fact an analytic kind of work, seeks to cast light at the fact that globalization is a sort of non-religious process while accepting the clam that globalization is something dynamic, progressive and in the state of becoming.

Key Words: globalization dubious identity, mixed identity, non-religious identity, religious tranining

The Strategy of managing the question

Ali Noori Mutlaq*


Upon receiving new information human mind passes through four stages (want, motivation, emotion, and response) provided that the new information proves to be effective, and in this direction it leaves behind the stages of receiving information, forming a question (doubt), asking questions and mental equilipium. Accordingly, the research question is: how is the mental question managed in its various stages to be taken an opportunity rather than a threat?

Research findings are as follows: the proper management of the dynamic cycle of mental activity and its various levels can contribute to the growth and development of society and individual in the realm of culture and civilization. Thus the energy produced from this process can be used to lead the society and the individual to the higher levels. If there is not a proper management, certain individual and social abnormalities may arise which result in soft and intangible deviations in strategic objectives in society.

Key Words: question, asking a question, motivation, emotion

Modeling Oneself after the Prophets,

Known as the Possessors of determination, in Showing Courtesy towards God in Making Supplication

Ali Hussein zadeh*


In this research, ‘modeling’ as a method, has been studied. The Prophets’ conduct towards God in making supplications , performing prayers and asking for help has been scrutinized in order to make people model themselves after it as the best way of communicating with God.

The writer has opened up a pief discussion on ‘modeling’ and then dealt with the kind of courtesy the Prophets like Noah, Apaham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad showed towards God when they were in the state of making supplications or performing prayers. Making use of the content analysis, the kind of address, the acts which can be attributed to God, the major desires and the selected title for every supplication has been studied in this research.

Key Words: supplication, call, modeling, the prophets known as the possessors of determination

Escape from Knowledge

and Awakening or Distaste for Them?

Gholamreza Mutaqifard*


In spite of the fact that human beings have a natural desire for knowledge and awakening, how can their reluctance hatred and even indifference be justified? Though this subject can be studied from various perspectives such as psychology, sociology and philosophy, in this research the emphasis is laid on the answers the religious doctrines can provide for the question. Reliance on logic of thought, citing the Qur’anic verses and traditions and the use of descriptive and analytic strategies constitute the main scheme of the research method and the ways to obtain data. The research finding show that some such matters as educational methods, misconceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of sciences, contending oneself with guess and having zealous love and hatred for one particular scientific subject, self-deception, blind prejudice, literalism and excessive pride have been taken to be the possible causes of escaping from knowledge and turning to ignorance.

Key Words: knowledge, instinct desire, escape from knowledge, escape from reality, ignorance, inattention, self-deception

Criteria for Choosing a

Spouse from the Islamic Point of View

Hadi Huseinkhani Na’ini*


Choosing a spouse is one important and crucial step in having a successful marriage. An increasing number of marriages end in divorce in the early years of a couple living together indicate that the marriage candidates do not have a good insight into various matters in choosing a spouse. Islam as a universal religion, which promises to ensure man’s happiness, proposes various criteria for choosing a spouse that pave the ground for the establishment of a good family.

This article seeks to study the criteria for choosing a spouse from the Islamic point of view. These criteria can be classified under the following general topics:

1. Religiousness and faith

2. Moral values

3. Physical characteristics

4. Family background

5. Economic status

6. Social background

Islam lays emphasis on the fact that the marriage partners should be equal in terms of the above-mentioned factors which ensures the stability of marriage; the Arabic term ‘kofw’ signifies the idea of marital equality or equal partners. .However, the attitudinal views of Islam has resulted in giving a special definition for marriage partners’ being “kufw”. Positive attitude to some aspects of ‘equal partnership’ and negative attitude to some other aspects represent Muslim legislators’ efforts in changing the cultural attitude to the idea of equal partnership.

Key Words: marriage, choosing a spouse, the criteria for choosing a spouse, marital equality, equal partnership


Translated by Ahmad Reza Jalili

The Role of Social Factors in

leading People to Drug Addiction, Theft and Prostitution

Sayyed Hamidreza Alawi*


This research has been carried out to investigate into the effects of social factors leading to drug addiction, theft and prostitution in Kerman. The method used in this research was a causal-comparative and its statistical population constituted ordinary people who have been charged with drug addiction, theft or prostitution. A questionnaire was used to collect information and the analysis of the data was done by the test k2 and logistic regression via the software SPSS. The obtained results show that some social factors have effects on drug addiction, theft and prostitution.

Key Words: social factors, addiction, theft, prostitution

Table of Contents

The Role of Social Factors in leading People to Drug Addiction, Theft and Prostitution / Sayyed Hamidreza Alawi 5

Criteria for Choosing a Spouse from the Islamic Point of View / Hadi Huseinkhani Na’ini 21

Escape from Knowledge and Awakening or Distaste for Them? / Gholamreza Mutaqifard 45

Modeling Oneself after the Prophets, Known as the Possessors of determination, in Showing Courtesy towards God in Making Supplication / Ali Hussein zadeh 63

The Strategy of managing the question / Ali Noori Mutlaq 87

Globalization; Identity Crisis and Undermining Religious Education / Muhammad Reza Soleimani Bashli 109

Punishment in the View of Islam and Psychology/ Shahnam Abulqasemi & Tamanna Dawudi 127

In the Name of Allah

Director-in-charge: Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Managing Director and Editor-in-chief: AliReza Arafi

Editor: Mohammad Javad Zarean

Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Asadullah Tosi

Editorial Board:

1-Hujjat al-Islam AliReza Arafi: Associate professor, Mustafa International University

2-Dr. Masod JanBozorgi: Assistant Professor, in Research Center of Seminary and University

3-Dr. Ali HosseinZadeh: Assistant Professor Kashan University.

4-Dr. Hujjat al-Islam Syeed Ahmad Rahnamaii: Assistant Professor Imam Khomeini Inst.

5-Dr. Hujjat al-Islam .Mohammad Javad Zarean: Assistant Professor Imam Khomeini Inst.

6-Dr. Hujjat al-Islam Mohammad Naser Sagha Biriea: Assistant Professor Imam Khomeini Inst.

7-Dr. Hujjat al-Islam AbasAli Shameli: Assistant Professor Imam Khomeini Inst.

8-Hujjat al-Islam Mohammad Gharavi: Assistant Professor in Research Center of Seminary and University.


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